Android is (OS) mobile operating system. It is developed currently by Google. It is based on Linux kernels. It is primarily designed for mobile touchscreen devices like tablets and smartphones. User interface of Android is based mainly on direct manipulations. It uses gestures of touch which correspond loosely to real world actions like pinching, swiping and tapping. It manipulates objects on screen together with virtual keyboards for text inputs. Additionally to devices touchscreen, Google has had developed further Android Auto for cars, Android Wear for wrist watches, and Android TV for televisions. All use user specialized interfaces. Android variants use also digital cameras, game consoles and notebooks. As in 2015, Android is largest base installed of nearly all operating systems.
Features: Interface: User default interface of Android has been based on direct manipulations by usage of touch inputs. It corresponds loosely to real world actions like reverse pinching, swiping, tapping and pinching for manipulating objects on-screen with virtual keyboards. Physical full sized keyboards and game controllers have been supported by means of Bluetooth. Responses to user inputs are designed for being immediate. This provides fluid touch interfaces. It uses capabilities vibration of devices for providing haptic feedbacks to users. Hardware internally, like proximity sensors, accelerometers and gyroscopes have been used by fewer applications for responding to added user actions. Examples are, adjustment of screens from portraits to landscapes whilst depending on how there is orientation of device. Or, allowance to users for steering vehicles in racing games by device rotation and control simulations of steering wheels.
Application: (“Apps”) Applications that extend device functionality have been written by using Android (SDK) software development kit. Often JAVA programming language is used because it has complete accessibility to Android APIs. JAVA can be combined with C++ or C. Together with choices of runtimes non-default there is better allowance of C++ supports. Go programming language is supported also since 1.4 version. This is exclusively used though with restricted sets of Android APIs. SDK include development tool’s comprehensive set which includes software libraries, tutorials, sample code, debugger, documentation and handset emulator on basis of QEMU. Google initially supported (IDE) integrated development environment namely Eclipse by using (ADT) Android Development Tools plugin. In 2014 year December, Google had released the Android Studio on basis of IntelliJ IDEA. This was IDE primary for development of Android application. There is presence of different development tools. It includes (NDK) native development kit for extensions or applications in C++ or C. Then there is Google App Inventor which is environment visually for new programmers. Then there is different cross platform web mobile applications frameworks. In 2014 January, Google unveiled frameworks on basis of Apache Cordova for porting Chrome HTML 5 Web application to Android being wrapped in application native shells. Memory Management: Devices of Android are battery powered usually. Android has been designed for managing memory (RAM) for keeping power consumptions at least. This is there in contrast to desktop’s operating system that assumes generally that it is connected to mains electricity unlimited. When there is no further use of Android application, system suspends it automatically in memory. Whilst application is “open” technically still, an application suspended consumes no resource (for instance processing power or battery power). It idly sits in background till again required. It brings dual advantages by thereby increasing responsiveness generally of devices of Android. This is because application need not be reopened and closed from scratches all times. This is done by providing ensurance that application background has no consumption of needless power.
Development: Update Schedules: Google thereby provides important upgrades incremental to Android in all 6 to 9 months with names and themes confectionery.